Calorizing - A process of converting the surface of steel articles into a corrosion-resistant alloy layer of aluminum and iron by surface absorption of aluminum from a mixture of aluminum and aluminum oxide powder at elevated temperatures.
Camber - In sheet or strip: the greatest deviation of a side from a straight line. In structurals: the curvature from the plane of a flange in the length of the section, either leg of an angle being taken as the flange. (Also see Sweep).
Carbides - As found in steel, carbides are compounds of carbon and one or more of the metallic elements, such as iron, chromium, tungsten, etc.
Carbon Range - In steel specifications, the carbon range is the difference between the minimum and maximum amount of carbon acceptable.
Carbon Steel - Steel whose major properties depend on its carbon content and in which other alloying elements are negligible.
Carburizing - Adding carbon to iron-base alloys by absorption through heating the metal at a temperature below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous materials. Such treatment followed by appropriate quenching hardens the surface of the metal. The oldest method of case hardening
Carburizing Compound - Mixtures containing carbonaceous solids which will give up carbon to steel in the presence of heat. Gas rich in carbon is sometimes used in the carburizing process.
Case - The surface layer of an iron-base alloy which has been made substantially harder than the interior by the process of case hardening.
Case Hardening - Carburizing, nitriding, or cyaniding and subsequent hardening, by heat treatment, all or part of the surface portions of a piece of iron base alloy.
Case Steel - Any object made by pouring molten steel into molds.
Casing Strains - Strains produced by internal stresses resulting from the cooling of a casting.
Centerless Ground - Material is treated with a grinding wheel to remove metal to achieve more accurate dimensions and better surface finishes.
Charpy Test - A test made to determine the notched toughness, or impact strength, of a material. The test gives the energy required to break a standard notched specimen supported at the two ends.
Chipping - One method of removing surface defects such as small fissures or seams from partially worked metal. If not eliminated, the defects might carry through to the finished material. If the defects are removed by means of a gas torch the term "deseaming" or "scarfing" is used.
Chromium - A hard corrosion resistant metal widely used as an alloying element in steel and for plating steel products.
Cleavage Plane - Crystals possess the property of breaking more readily in one or more directions than in others. The planes of easy rupture are cleavage planes.
Close Tolerance - Hot-rolled material is classed as close tolerance when furnished to size tolerances more restrictive than standard-in no case closer than ½ the standard variation.
Coining - A method of cold forming or sizing metal by compression, often used for imparting smooth finishes and dose tolerances.
Cold Finishing - Changing the shape of, or reducing the cross section of steel while cold - usually accomplished by rolling, drawing through a die or turning.
Cold Heading - Forcing cold metal to flow into dies to form thicker sections and intricate shapes.
Cold Rolling - See "Cold Finishing”.
Cold Shut - An area in metal where two portions of the metal in either a molten or plastic condition have come together but have failed to unite into an integral mass.
Cold Working - Permanent deformation of a metal below its recrystallization temperature, which hardens the metal.
Compressive Strength - Yield: Maximum stress that a compressed metal can withstand without a predefined amount of deformation. Ultimate: Maximum stress a brittle metal can withstand without fracturing when subjected to compression.
Consumable Electrode Melting - An ingot of steel is re-melted in a vacuum by making the ingot serve as a consumable electrode. Purpose: to refine the steel. The melted ingot is collected in a water-cooled copper mold.
Continuous Mill - A mill in which several stands of rolls are arranged in tandem, usually so close together that the steel passes through several stands simultaneously - for example: bar mills, strip mills, and some newer plate mills
Controlled Cooling- Cooling from elevated temperature in a pre-determined manner to avoid hardening, cracking or internal damage, or to produce a desired micro structure. Such cooling usually follows the final forming operation.
Core - The center portion of a piece of steel which may be of different chemical composition than the outside, as in the case of carburized parts, or which may have different physical properties than the outside due to the failure of penetration of heat treatment effect.
Creep - Plastic deformation or flow of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than normal yield strength. Especially important if the temperature of stressing is near recrystallization temperature of the metal
Creep Strength - The maximum stress which can be applied to steel at a specified temperature without causing more than a specified percentage increase in length in a specified time.
Creep Test - A number of samples, each loaded to a different stress, are placed in heating coils and held at a constant predetermined temperature. Tests are conducted for periods ranging from 1000-2000 hours during which time the samples stretch. The elongation is measured and recorded at regular intervals. The results show the amount of elongation which can be expected when the steel is subjected to a given stress and temperature within a given time.
Critical Points or Temperature - The various temperatures at which transformation occur in steel as it passes through its critical range - on either a rising or falling temperature. (See Transformation Range,)
Critical Range - A temperature range in passing through which steel undergoes transformation. The preferred term is transformation range (q.v.).
Crop - The imperfect ends of a rolled or forged product which are removed and discarded.
Cryogenics - Working with materials in environments near absolute zero (459.69°F}.
Cup Fracture - A type of fracture-which looks like a cup having the exterior portion extended with the interior slightly depressed-produced in a tensile test specimen. Usually an indication of ductility.
Cyaniding - Surface hardening of an iron-base alloy article or portion of it by heating at suitable temperatures in contact with molten cyanide salt and then quenching.